Trauma: Child Abuse


Trauma results from severe mental, emotional, or physical distress. Abuse can also be the catalyst for trauma. Abuse within families is a serious social issue that negatively affects everyone globally. All issues that occur as a result must be corrected immediately or damage can be irreversible. We live in a world where catastrophes happen daily and it is the responsibility of healthcare professional to have proactive measures in place to assure that families are able to heal from sustained trauma. Consequently, researches have worked tirelessly to study the effects of trauma. As a result of paradigm shifts in how trauma is accessed, awareness has increased tremendously regarding the devastating effects of domestic violence and child abuse (James & MacKinnon, 2012). The aforementioned coupled with advancements in neuroscience regarding brain imaging technology has enabled researchers to observe the effect of trauma on the human brain and trace the biological pathways from traumatic events to the physical and psychological sequelae of depression, anxiety, intrusive memories, avoidance, and dissociation (James & MacKinnon, 2012). The study of trauma expanded as therapists began to view many dysfunctions as at least partially caused by trauma which ultimately allowed scholars the opportunity to create innovative methods that assist clients with healing. According to James & Mackinnon (2012), multiple studies have established that adverse events experienced within childhood profoundly undermine individual’s physical and emotional development. A child’s disturbed or problematic behavior may have resulted from disrupted attachment as well as experiences of trauma. This writer concludes that there is a direct correlation between parent and child relationship, the child’s overall development and the youth’s ability to survive and thrive as productive citizens. The presence of abuse significantly reduces the child’s capacity thus it should be considered a threat to modern civilization.


James, K., & MacKinnon, L. (2012). Family Therapy and Trauma. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Family Therapy, 187-188.

Change Agents

Change agent

Change agent

Change agents are individuals who indirectly or directly initiate change. For example, a change agent may be a person employed within a company whose passion revolutionizes the processes that structure the organization. Change agents are the catalyst for change within the community. Their presence fosters community development. Community development projects link people with one another (Homan, 2010). Additionally, the aforementioned provides opportunity for multiple streams of income to enter the community that will theoretically transform unsavory conditions which will eventually lead to improvements in the public’s quality of life. These changes are made possible from the resources available to the community. Admittedly, a community may not have access to a large vault of money; however, it may acquire funding through alternate forms of capital. A healthy community relies on multiple streams of revenue to guarantee that it is able to sustain itself and grow. Additionally, a healthy community consists of community members who actively work together to improve their neighborhood.

According to Homan (2010), there are numerous forms of capital available to the community that many fail to consider. Some examples include natural or environmental, physical, political, human and social (Homan, 2010). Each of the aforementioned examples can be used as leverage to obtain financial backing if funding is required. Environmental capital may be one of the most important forms of capital as it includes the natural features and resources of the area. Investing in one’s environment is essential because it is the foundation for the community. Consequently, community members invest in their surroundings because they are emotionally invested so the property’s attractiveness and features must be maintained at all cost. Human capital is the central source of wealth for the community as it allows direct access to stored skills, talents, passion, energy and currency (Homan, 2010). Additionally, political capital involves access to the system of policy setting and enforcement in the community. Utilizing political capital allows community members to enact change and influence policy pertinent to the improvement of the community.

Social capital is the system of community norms and interrelationships that produce trust, collaborative action and community consciousness. A community rich in social capital will likely undertake efforts to develop other forms of capital that may be in short supply in the community. Social capital is a fundamental strength of the community. According to Homan’s (2012) study on school performance, it is suggested that the availability of social capital within the community can substitute for what is missing within a family (Homan, 2010). Alternatively, low percentages of social capital increase the probability that community members will feel powerless, exploited and unable to effect change. This knowledge is important because it reveals the importance of cultivating social capital. Social capital strengthens both individuals and communities through networks of connections, and this concept has tremendous merit for community change agents. It is the presence of social capital that motivates members to focus on the success of the collective.

The community has the power to create vocational and educational programs that will benefit the collective community. Resources are available to the community, but sometimes the collective must work together to utilize the capital effectively. Each person within the community has the ability to offer skill sets that are relevant; however, the community must be on one accord to assure optimal success. By including everyone within the community, members feel more obligated to offer assistance. Moreover, they become emotional invested in improving their community. This connection is essential to assure the success and continuation of all planned projects.

Homan, M. S. (2010). Promoting Community Change. Belmont: Cengage Learning.

The Mind of Hitler.

Freud argued that a person’s personality is largely determined by the various events that occurred during their childhood and early life. Likewise, all personality theorists agree that human beings, similar to animals, are born with innate desires, instincts, and motivations (Friedman & Schustack 2009). For example, newborn’s responses have been recorded in regards to painful and pleasurable stimuli. It is believed that at birth, babies have little opportunity to become acclimated but yet they display the remarkable ability to understand their basic wants and needs. It can be argued that these native responses are based upon their inner motivating force; therefore it is believed that this primal response to stimuli is inherently known and can be classified as the undifferentiated core of personality. These inborn responses confirmed Freud’s historical theories concerning his understanding of a phenomenon that he entitled the id. According to Freud, every individual possesses within themselves three primary components that comprise their personalities; the id, ego and superego (Friedman & Schustack 2009). These components are supposedly the catalyst for the behavior of humans; these different aspects comprised the personality, mannerisms, and practices of individuals. It was Freud’s belief that human beings actions and motivations originated within themselves as a direct result of the presence of these conditions. Within this paper, we will discuss certain attributes of Adolph Hitler to observe the accuracy of Freud’s belief.

Hitler (1939) similar to Freud, within his book stated that he firmly believed that the creativity, philosophy and understandings that he learned within his childhood directly influenced his life as an adult. Moreover he believed that it was the time he spent in his youth that provided the building material and plans for his future (Hitler 1939). This is interesting because it mimics Freud’s well known viewpoints. However, Freud goes deeper to state that he saw the psychological world as a series of opposing tension, such as tension between selfishness and society. Underlying these tensions, he believed to be sexual energy that was the psychic energy which is the primary drive or motivation. One of the stages that corresponded to this energy mentioned was the anal stage. I believed Hitler was stuck in this stage because of his response to his father’s authority. As a child he witnessed his father abusive nature and this caused him to rebel against anyone who chose to act as an authority figure (Hitler 1939). Eventually he turned his rebellion upon his father by dropping out of school because his father opposed his dreams of becoming an artist. Hitler wanted unbridled freedom. This meant that he wanted the ability to express (defecate) himself but his father repressed (toilet trained) his dreams according to his own desires. His father’s over aggressiveness placed Hitler in the anal stage and was the direct result of Hitler’s obstinacy in adulthood.

Freud‘s opinions on sexuality would undoubtedly shock Hitler but nevertheless Freud’s theory accurately defined multiple aspects of Hitler’s persona. Hitler is cited as being staunchly opposed against homosexuality (Wistrich, 1995). This is confirmed by the number of homosexuals that were murdered during the Holocaust in relation to their heterosexual counterpart. However, Hitler himself is rumored to have engaged in homosexual relations; although no reports had been substantiated, it is well known that one of Hitler’s longest confidants and closest friends was homosexual and Hitler never objected to it. This is interesting to note because Hitler’s plight of purifying the Aryan race was also seemingly hypocritical. The image he portrayed to the world was very unlike the image he saw in the mirror (Wistrich 1995). This finding is similar to the Reaction Formation principle given by Freud. Hitler’s actions were reminiscent of religious evangelist and governmental officials who publicly spoke against certain attributes yet possessed them.

Hitler was a small dark figured men but during his life he was an advocate for the blond hair, blond eye individual. During his adulthood, he spent his time terrorizing the very people he resembled while placing those unlike him on a pedestal. It is for this reason, that I believe that Hitler displaced his own insecurities of himself upon the Jewish people. It was his hate for himself that caused him to ruthlessly pursue them and through their death he was able to clean parts of himself.

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2009). Personality: Classic theories and modern research. Upper Saddle River, NJ, MA: Pearson.
Hitler, A. (1939). Mein Kampf. NY: Reynal & Hitchcock.
Wistrich, R. S. (1995). Who’s Who in Nazi Germany. Ny, NY.


Vaccination Conspiracy!


Every day, millions of children globally are injected with foreign agents that claim to offer an unique advantage for the recipients. The Health Care Industry coupled with the FDA have issued a claim that these immunizations are needed to ensure optimal health benefits. The introduction of these vaccinations were in response to global pandemics that occurred historically. To ensure that humanity had protection against these sadist killers, authorities commissioned scientist to engineer serums to stimulate individual’s immune systems in order to develop adaptive immunity. The theory is that if a virus is given to an individual in a controlled dose it could protect against future infections. Although the original concept was noble, modern administration of these immunization would suggest otherwise.

Controversy and much debate has arisen from this subject. The opponents of vaccinations have even argued the necessity of vaccinating children. However, it has been proven that vaccinations have helped eradicate preexisting debilitating diseases. Although it can not accept this accolade alone due to the numerous advancements in water treatment, living conditions and health services globally. While it is the writer’s opinion that immunizations may provide humanity with added benefit, it is of concern the direction that the program has taken. Within this essay we will discuss the effectiveness of forced injections, highlight the ingredients of vaccinations, and the implications of administrating vaccinations uniformity.

Today the terms vaccination, inoculation, and immunization are used interchangeably. However, this was not always the case. It is believed that some form of inoculation was developed in India or china before the 16th century( lund 2007). The Scholar Ole Lund stated: “The earliest documented example of vaccinations are from India and China in the 17th century, where vaccinations with powdered scabs from people infected with smallpox was used to protect against the disease. Smallpox used to be a common disease throughout the world and 20% to 30% of infected persons died from the disease. Smallpox was responsible for 8% to 20% of all deaths in several European countries in the 18th century. The tradition of inoculation may have originated in India” (lund 2007). Vaccinations were at one point highly sought after from the public because of their miraculous healing power however now individuals are being bullied by government officials into accepting their application.

Many of the opponents of inoculations state that they are not morally opposed to vaccinations but they are opposed to government health officials having the power to intimidate, threaten, and coerce them into violating their beliefs concerning the vaccination and its appropriateness for their children. Numerous concerning incidents have been highlighted within the media recently of parents being forced to vaccinate. One such incident is the bill passed in New Jersey that requires flu vaccination for small children to enter school (MSN). New Jersey is not the only state to implement such laws. Maryland issued a similar law that states that parents must vaccinate or face jail time (abc). This prompted a “vaccination roundup” by gunpoint; State officials issued summons for 1600 parents who had insufficient vaccinations records(AAPS). The mass mandate stated that all delinquent parents must appear in Court and subject their children to on-the-spot state-mandated vaccines of up 17 vaccine doses, or face imprisonment. Parents who ignore the court’s demands could face a $50 fine for every day their child is out of compliance or up to 10 days in jail. Furthermore Massachusetts’s bill “Pandemic Response Bill” 2028, reportedly suspends Constitutional rights of Massachusetts citizens and forces anyone “suspected” of being infected to submit to interrogations, “decontaminations” and vaccines. Fines up to $1,000 per day for anyone are given to those who refuses to submit to quarantines, vaccinations, decontamination efforts or to follow any other verbal order by virtually any state-licensed law enforcement or medical personnel.

A major concern for many who research vaccinations is the ingredients within it. Another issue is that these vaccinations are grown on animal organs, cancer cells, aborted fetuses and other toxic substances. One can argue the validity of the concoction because of it. Critics argue the use of thimersol, fluoride, formaldehyde, aluminum, and aborted fetal cells in vaccinations. As to date no adequate, scientific research has been given to give clear insight about possible long term effects of these antigens nor has any double-blind, placebo-controlled study to prove the safety and effectiveness of vaccines. Moreover, the aforementioned ingredients have historically been banned from consumption. If this is the case than why is it now being encouraged? It is especially concerning that vaccinations bypass the skin barrier and is placed directly into the blood system. Another point to consider is the amount of vaccinated children that catch the virus after being vaccinated. With all the controversy surrounding vaccinations it is logically to believe that more research would be given in order to balance public concern. However instead of rationale conversation a “one size fit all” solution is applied. Recently, many parents have decided to stop vaccinating their children. This has led to resistances from the public as well as health sector. Parents have been threaten with removal of their children for noncompliance as well as face stiff fines as penalty. Instead of displaying empathy for concerned parents officials have ignored parental pleas and have actually increased the amount of dosages required before school age.

Custodians argue that the uniformity of the practice is not healthy and that the government does not take into the account of the uniqueness of each child. “Children should be carefully screened, medical records taken and decisions made carefully – not in an ad hoc assembly-line clinic in a county courtroom and under the brutal watch of law enforcement. This is a man-made disaster ready to waiting to detonate. Children could receive a dangerous cocktail of several vaccines without proper examinations. “The procedure is reckless and subjects children to the risk of severe reactions. Physicians would not be allowed to treat children in this way, without individual histories and physical exams – or informed consent,” said Jane M. Orient, M.D., AAPS Executive Director(AAPS).

Parents that reject the government suggestions have found support but their decision is not popular. Some parents that omit vaccination because of health reasons do so because of the correlation between vaccinations and autism. Studies of the non-vaccinating amish have farther fueled this desire among parents to allow nature to run its course. Regardless of others opinions it is the right of every parent to raise their children as they feel would be most productive. However, it seems as if the state believes its rights is superior to the parents and cam deem what is best for the child. Many parents have taken offense to this and this has added fuel to the immunization debate.

The topic of vaccinations is a highlighted topic among many of our scholars. Some families may not understand the gravity of this decision and unfortunately it may be taken lightly because many people are unaware of the dangers associated. We are taught to conform to popular opinion and never believe that healthcare professionals could be wrong. It is unfortunate that many do not even know what is within the shot yet they give it to their children. This blind devotion to authority has to be rejected in order for humanity to be properly educated on its dangers. Vaccinations may provide a benefit but forcing others to take it is wrong. The vaccination makers must give us full disclosure of its ingredients and we must acknowledge that healthcare can not be uniform.

References: “Doctors Oppose Maryland Vaccine Roundup.” AAPS. Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, 16 Nov. 2007. Web. 18 June 2012. . Lombard, M., PP Pastoret, and AA Moulin Natural Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 26 Apr. 2007 Lund, Ole. Immunological Bioinformatics. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2005. Print “Md. Officials: Vaccinate Your Children or Face Jail Time.” ABC News. ABC News Network, 18 Feb. 09. Web. 18 June 2012. . “Preschoolers’ Parents Protest Required Flu Shot.” Msnbc. The Associated Press, 16 Oct. 2008. Web.

Women in leadership

Women weren’t always given the right, the opportunity, nor the education to compete on the world’s stage. Nor could we represent ourselves as leaders in society or vote for representation of ourselves. We were completely shut out and left to defend for ourselves. Men were considered owners of us and their opinions outweighed ours with family and stranger. Many women were left to suffer alone. History gives numerous accounts of beaten, bruised and battered women. However, thankfully some aspects of reality have changed. Women now occupy leadership positions in just about every area of business, politics, and culture. Many women have proven over the years that they too can be highly effective in a wide range of fields; including but not limited to science, education, and technology. Let us not forget to mention the leadership role women have always played in their homes and communities.

Leadership lies within our very essence. However, it was not until the 1900’s that America considered it sociably acceptable for women to have careers outside of the home. Since then, the U.S. has witnessed a sharp increase in the number of women in the workforce. Many of whom have successfully grown their own companies. These women continuously destroy stereotypes and have redefined the concept of who the woman is and what is the woman’s role. Females are now proving that they are just as efficient as their male counterparts in many areas. The matriarchy ideology of the woman has been shattered by the modern women. These accomplishments were made possible as a result of women understanding key underlying principles: patience, ethics, and constant learning and application,

I interviewed Michelle Nettles on her role as a leader. Michelle Nettles works full-time as a nurse and also manages a number of other employees. Throughout the conversation she emphasized the importance of having patience. She stated that a leader must be able to exercise restraint and place others above themselves. She believes that a leader who lacks patience would eventually defeat themselves because of the nature of the position. It is logical that having patience would be an asset. The very nature of the business is demanding and stressful. Her understanding is that everyday multiple problems arise however, the leader should be able to maneuver seamlessly without flaw. Another interesting topic we discussed during our interview was the topics of ethics. We discussed the importance of morality in leadership, and why dealing morally with others is necessary. Morals are the glue to a person’s character. Mrs. Nettles interacts daily with people of all walks of life. She stated that she has also seen on a few occasions how someone could be placed into leadership positions prematurely. She believes as many do that building leadership skills is a process.

One issue that arose within the interview was that not enough people cared to educate themselves beyond their initial education. She felt strongly that the attainment of knowledge is a life-long endeavor, and she encourages others to continue their search for new things to learn. I learned that to be truly effective one must be humble and one who is just and moral, as well as one who listens, and a thinker in order to be an effective leader. Anyone can lead, but not everyone can lead effectively.This interview has taught me that listening is more important than talking. I know now I must develop the humane part of myself in order to thrive in the leadership position. I know that to be truly effective I must humble myself to those around me. I have learned that in order to become a better leader I have to become a better person.

Healthcare Quality and Procedure

Most people believe that the hospital is the safest place to go in an emergency. However, few are aware that the Hospitals themselves are the cause of crisis for many individuals. Hospital errors are very costly and cause many people their lives. It has been suggested that between 44,000 and 98,000 people die every year due to these blunders. It is estimated that the cost to the taxpayers is 37.6 to 50 billion dollars each year. Some are easily preventable while other mistakes are more intricate. Regardless of the type of error, the families of the victim always want answers, while everyone else seeks to learn the preventative measures the hospital should take to keep the accident from occurring in the future. Within this paper we will examine what Quality healthcare is, how it is given and how it has been improved.

Healthcare Quality is defined as the “degree to which health services for individuals or populations increase positive outcomes and are consistent with the current standards of knowledge”(p.82) .

There are several distinct aspects of Quality Care that must be adhered to in order to satisfy the aforementioned definition. One is that the health services should achieve desired health outcomes for people and populations while meeting their individual preferences. A second aspect that must be satisfied is that it must abide by regulation and rules implemented by policy makers and third party subscribers. Another important element of healthcare quality and performance is the relevant use of its sparse resources. Historically policy makers have focused their undivided attention on the quality of healthcare. Examples of these are Codex Hammurabi and the Hippocratic Oath. Modern versions are amended and adhered to by physicians as well as used in training. These policies have greatly influenced every position I have held in health care. Without it the industry will not hold the position it now does.

A leading 21st century Physician, Avis Donabedin, introduced an idea that quality could be viewed from a systematic perspective. He placed this theory in three main categories: structural, processes, and outcome. The structural elements include the material, physical, and human resources of an organization. This would also include the building itself. The process element involved the interaction between client and staff. Furthermore, it takes into consideration the required as well supplementary activities of the patient. Lastly, outcomes are the resulting health status of the client. By utilizing this approach physicians are able to measure the effectiveness and the quality of the care that was provided. Moreover, quality assurance is associated with reforms and observations made by Florence Nightingale. Her observation of unhygienic conditions promoted reformation in hospital sanitation. Similarly, Donabedin’s theory included the observation approach. Ernest Codman built upon Nightingale’s concept. He proposed that hospitals examine whether that the services they provided to patients were beneficial and did they address the reasons for failure. Codman implemented a system called “The End Result System” in 1910. This system articulates three main points of quality assurance. The first principle is to examine quality measures to determine if problems are patient, system, or clinician-related. Secondly he proposed assessing the frequency and prevalence of quality deficiencies. The last principle is to evaluate and correct any deficiencies so that they do not reoccur. However, some complications can arise within healthcare quality and can be seen in three forms: underuse, overuse, and misuse (p. 82).

Underuse is when proven procedures and treatments are not used due to a number of reasons. One example is with vaccinations. Although we now have clinical research that supports the use of vaccinations, some parents do not utilize them because of fear or there isn’t a lot of knowledge available about them. Overuse can be described as a procedure that are prescribed despite growing evidence of the treatments ineffectiveness to treat or cure. While misuse is medical errors that cost the hospitals as well as the taxpayers dearly. However with simple oversight these issues can be rectified. Programs like the Hospitalization Standardization Program of the American College of Surgeons utilizes Codman’s “End Result System” because it has been proven to be effective in order to ensure quality healthcare. Codman’s program established basic requirement that focused on the quality of care within hospitals, including the organizing of hospital medical staffs. It stated that only competent, licensed, and well trained staff was given membership and it restricted all others. His program included a framework of policies and procedures to ensure staff meetings and clinical reviews. It ensured accurate recording of medical histories and developed diagnostic as well as treatment facilitates under physician watch (p.88). These programs assure that the performance of the hospital stays within the status quo. Similarly, organizations like the Joint commission accreditation program developed authenticating and tracking polices to benchmark standards. My company was threatened to lose our accreditation because our numbers were off. Because our superiors were fearful of the results we had to work harder to ensure success. Policies such as these assures clients that they will receive professional and beneficial healthcare at every accredited hospital.

Many measures have been put into place to better regulate the quality of healthcare provided to the American citizens. It has been my experience that the more oversight the less chance for error. This will lessen the risks of misuse, overuse, and underuse and will greatly decrease the impact on the system overall. The customer will still benefit from the high level of quality they have grown to expect from a premium healthcare provider. The amount of money that will be saved can be reinvested into new research and technology that will help improve the current system.

Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (2007). Introduction to health care management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.


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